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**Audio GED Prep Social Studies Lesson 2**

**North and South America, Australia**

**The United States and Territories**

The United States is a relatively new country. Started out as settlements from many countries like Roanoke and Jamestown that eventually developed into the 13 colonies, who were loosely bound together, though they had many differences.

The colonies fought a war for independence against Great Britain and won, eventually becoming the United States of America. Gradually, new territories were admitted to the “Union” and the United States grew.

For a short while, the United States was split into two countries: the United States of America and the Confederate States of America during the period of the Civil War. At the end of the war, the two countries rejoined.

Many believed in the “manifest destiny” of the United States, which meant that the country should expand from one coast to the other. This is the case today, with the country being split into 50 states, with two states, Alaska and Hawaii, being not attached to the other 50.

The United States also has control over a variety of territories around the world, including Puerto Rico, the Virgin Island, Guam and American Samoa. There are also U.S. military installations throughout the world, with many in Europe and Asia.

The largest river in the United States is the Mississippi, which branches out into many tributaries. There are two main mountain ranges: the Rocky Mountains and the Appalachian Mountains.

**• Canada**

Canada is the second largest country in the world land wise after Russia, though most of its population lives close to its border with the United States. About 75 percent of Canadians (out of around 33 million citizens) live within 100 miles of the U.S. borders. It has more coastline than any other country, because it is bordered by the Atlantic, Pacific, and Arctic Oceans.

Many parts of Canada were settled by French explorers and the influence of French language and culture continues to this day. Other parts of Canada were controlled by Great Britain. Today, both English and French are official languages in Canada.

Instead of states, Canada is divided into provinces and territories. There are ten provinces, such as Ontario, Quebec, Alberta, and British Columbia, and three territories: The Northwest Territories, Nunavut, and Yukon. Canada includes many different islands as part of its territory including Prince Edward Island.

**• Mexico**

Mexico was the site of many powerful civilizations including the Olmec and the Maya. Spain conquered the region in the 16th century and turned it into a colony, but it achieved its own independence in the 19th century.

Today, it is a country that is bordered by the United States in the north and the countries of Central America in the south. It is bordered by the Pacific Ocean in the west and the Gulf of Mexico in the east. It includes a long peninsula that is south of the U.S. state of California called “Baja California”.

In terms of land area, it is just about three times the size of the state of Texas, though its population is around 120 million.

Mexico has 31 different states that are all self governed, and there is a special Federal District that belongs to the entire federation at a whole instead of to a specific state.

**• Central America**

Central America is considered part of North America, and is a narrow bridge of land that connects North America with South America. On the north, it is bordered by Mexico, on the south by the South American country of Columbia. On the east, is the Caribbean Sea, and on the west is the Pacific Ocean.

Central America includes the countries of Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama. Also in the region are the islands of Cuba, Haiti, the Dominican Republic, and the islands of the Bahamas, and other Caribbean islands. Most of these countries have tropical climates. The culture is closely related to that of Mexico and South America, and includes that of both Spanish colonists, and the indigenous peoples such as the Mayans.

Panama is especially notable because of the Panama Canal, a canal that lets ships pass through from the Caribbean Sea to the Pacific Ocean without having to go around South America. This canal was once owned by the United States, but was given back to Panama.

**• South America**

South America is a continent below Central America, also named after the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci. It is bordered by the Pacific Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean and the Caribbean Sea. It includes a variety of countries including Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, and Venezuela.

The countries of South America speak a variety of languages, such as Spanish and Portuguese, due to the influence of European colonists. Other countries have English, French, and even Dutch as official languages. There are some who speak versions of the languages of the indigenous peoples such as the Inca, the Maya and the Aztecs. These powerful civilizations only fell out of power when European colonists arrived.

Brazil is by far the largest and most powerful country. They use a variety of currencies, ranging from the US dollar to the Euro, to the peso and others.

**• Australia and Oceania**

Australia is a large island continent and a number of smaller islands, including Tasmania. It is surrounded by the Pacific and Indian Oceans. Though it is the smallest continent, it is also the world’s sixth-largest country. The country was discovered by the Dutch in the 17th Century, and it was later colonized by Great Britain in the 18th Century. In 1901, six colonies came together into a single country: the Commonwealth of Australia.

Today, Australia has six states, New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria and Western Australia, and two mainland territories, the Australian Capital Territory and the Northern Territory.

Today, English is the official language, but there are also a great number of Aboriginals, who were the original inhabitants of the island before European settlers arrived.

**• Antarctica**

Antarctica is the southernmost continent, the coldest and driest on earth. It is largely uninhabited, with only a few scientific settlements with only a few thousand people. There are very few plants and animals in Antarctica, and no countries, though the laws of the countries who run the research stations apply.

Antarctica is divided into several regions, including the Antarctic Peninsula, East Antarctica, the Ross Sea, West Antarctica, and the South Pole.

An allegory is a story in which the characters, settings, or events have a deeper symbolic meaning such as George Orwell’s “Animal Farm”.

Sources: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eastern_Europe

http://russiapedia.rt.com/basic-facts-about-russia/

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asia

©2015 Franz Amussen, All Rights Reserved

If you are interested in learning to sail listen to the podcast “Sailing in the Mediterranean”

at http://www.medsailor.com

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Lesson Summary:

Audio GED Prep Social Studies Lesson 2

North and South America, Australia

The United States and Territories

The United States is a relatively new country. Started out as settlements from many countries like Roanoke and Jamestown that eventually developed into the 13 colonies, who were loosely bound together, though they had many differences.

The colonies fought a war for independence against Great Britain and won, eventually becoming the United States of America. Gradually, new territories were admitted to the “Union” and the United States grew.

For a short while, the United States was split into two countries: the United States of America and the Confederate States of America during the period of the Civil War. At the end of the war, the two countries rejoined.

Many believed in the “manifest destiny” of the United States, which meant that the country should expand from one coast to the other. This is the case today, with the country being split into 50 states, with two states, Alaska and Hawaii, being not attached to the other 50.

The United States also has control over a variety of territories around the world, including Puerto Rico, the Virgin Island, Guam and American Samoa. There are also U.S. military installations throughout the world, with many in Europe and Asia.

The largest river in the United States is the Mississippi, which branches out into many tributaries. There are two main mountain ranges: the Rocky Mountains and the Appalachian Mountains.

• Canada

Canada is the second largest country in the world land wise after Russia, though most of its population lives close to its border with the United States. About 75 percent of Canadians (out of around 33 million citizens) live within 100 miles of the U.S. borders. It has more coastline than any other country, because it is bordered by the Atlantic, Pacific, and Arctic Oceans.

Many parts of Canada were settled by French explorers and the influence of French language and culture continues to this day. Other parts of Canada were controlled by Great Britain. Today, both English and French are official languages in Canada.

Instead of states, Canada is divided into provinces and territories. There are ten provinces, such as Ontario, Quebec, Alberta, and British Columbia, and three territories: The Northwest Territories, Nunavut, and Yukon. Canada includes many different islands as part of its territory including Prince Edward Island.

• Mexico

Mexico was the site of many powerful civilizations including the Olmec and the Maya. Spain conquered the region in the 16th century and turned it into a colony, but it achieved its own independence in the 19th century.

Today, it is a country that is bordered by the United States in the north and the countries of Central America in the south. It is bordered by the Pacific Ocean in the west and the Gulf of Mexico in the east. It includes a long peninsula that is south of the U.S. state of California called “Baja California”.

In terms of land area, it is just about three times the size of the state of Texas, though its population is around 120 million.

Mexico has 31 different states that are all self governed, and there is a special Federal District that belongs to the entire federation at a whole instead of to a specific state.

• Central America

Central America is considered part of North America, and is a narrow bridge of land that connects North America with South America. On the north,]]>

Title: Literary Devices

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GED lesson for Social Studies Lesson 1

]]>Title: Literary Devices

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**Audio GED Prep Science Lesson 2 **

Life Science: Biochemistry

There are two main ways in which organisms obtain the energy that they need in order to exist from day to day. There are some organisms like humans who eat other plants and animals in order to create energy. These organisms take in oxygen and expel carbon dioxide. Then, there are other organisms that you a process called photosynthesis in order to convert the light from the sun into usable energy. These organisms, mostly plants, take in carbon dioxide and expel oxygen. Thus, both kinds of organisms are in a mutually-beneficial relationship that helps support all life.

ADP and ATP

ATP (Adenosine triphosphate) is a molecule in the body that cells use for energy transfer. When an organism processes food, it creates ATP in cells. Each molecule of ATP has three branches or phosphate groups that can be broken off. When a cell breaks one of these bonds, ATP turns into ADP (Adensoinediphosphate), which chemical reaction creates energy. Notice that “tri” means three and “di” means two. The energy created then powers cells to continue their processes.

Photosynthesis

Photosynthesis is a process that plants and similar life forms use to create energy. Organisms who use photosynthesis contain a chemical called chlorophyll which lends a green color to these life forms. They are green because they use the energy from the blue and red wavelengths of light, but not green. Red and blue get absorbed, but green stays.

During photosynthesis, sunlight strikes the chlorophyll in plants in cells that all plants have that are known as chloroplasts. In these cells water and carbon dioxide combine using the energy from sunlight to create glucose (sugar) and oxygen. Water is made of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen (H2O) and carbon dioxide is made of one carbon atom and two oxygen atoms. (CO2) Glucose is made of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen (C6H12O6). The glucose is used for energy and the oxygen is let off as a waste product, to be used by animals who need oxygen to create energy instead of carbon dioxide.

DNA

DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) is the molecule that creates the blueprint to make living cells. Almost all living organisms use DNA. It contains instructions based on different combinations of chemicals called bases: adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C) and thymine (T). These bases fit together with each other to create what are called base pairs, which, along with a sugar molecule and phosphate molecule, create the “rungs” on the ladder of DNA. A pairs with T, and C with G. The base pairs form the “rungs” and the sugar and phosphate form the vertical sides of the ladder, which is then twisted around.

A single piece of human DNA contains about 3 billion of these base pairs, and 99 percent of these base pairs are the same on most people, with only the 1 percent making us unique.

DNA is a powerful substance that is able to make copies of itself in order to spread the necessary instructions to other cells so that more copies of cells can be made. When the body “reads” DNA, it receives instructions to make a certain protein, called a gene, and these genes are what determine the properties of a life form, from hair color, to eye color, to skin color, to less obvious things such as what diseases a person might be prone to in life.

There are over 20,000 genes in humans, which together make up what is called the human genome. Scientists have mapped this genome in order to better help people predict what their genes will cause.

RNA

RNA stands for ribonucleic acid, and it is similar to DNA. It is made up of nucleotides with a nitrogenous base, a sugar and a phosphate, just like DNA. Unlike DNA, it comes in a variety of shapes as there are different varieties of RNA.

While DNA is used to relay genetic instructions, RNA molecules are used in creating proteins and sometimes help with transmitting genetic information. While DNA is made up of the bases ATC and G, RNA is made up for AUC and G, where Uracil replaces Thymine.

There are several kinds of RNA.

mRNA is called messenger RNA. It caries genetic information from DNA to a structure called a ribosome, which is where proteins are created.

tRNA or transfer RNA and rRna or ribosomal RNA are used to actually create the protein. The RNA contains small chains of three bases that correspond to what is called an amino acid, which are the building blocks for proteins. The messenger RNA brings in the message of what to make, and the other kinds of RNA build a chain of amino acids, which becomes a protein.

Parts of the Cell

Nucleus: This is the center of the cell that controls all of the functions of the cell.

Nucleoplasm: This is the thick fluid inside the nucleus.

Nucleolus: This a storage in the nucleus that carries genetic information as RNA.

Cell Membrane: This contains the cell and everything in it. It is porous and can let things in and out.

Cell Wall: This is a barrier made of cellulose that plant cells have.

Cytoplasm: This is the thick fluid in cells that contains all of the parts of the cell.

Vacuoles: These are storage containers that carry food, minerals and waste. They are large in plants and small in animals.

Mitochondria: This is the power plant of the cell.

Chloroplast: These are parts of cells in plants that contain chlorophyll.

Ribosomes: These are tiny spheres that help make proteins.

Endoplasmic Reticulum: This connects the cell membrane to the nucleus and acts as a transport path.

Golgi Bodies: These are tube structures that help package protein.

Lysosomes: These are small sacs with digestive fluid that can be used to destroy a cell.

Source:

http://www.biology4kids.com/files/plants_photosynthesis.html

http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/basics/dna

https://www.genome.gov/25520880

http://www.news-medical.net/health/What-is-RNA.aspx

http://jgimp.tripod.com/cells.html

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Lesson Summary:

Audio GED Prep Science Lesson 2

Life Science: Biochemistry

There are two main ways in which organisms obtain the energy that they need in order to exist from day to day. There are some organisms like humans who eat other plants and animals in order to create energy. These organisms take in oxygen and expel carbon dioxide. Then, there are other organisms that you a process called photosynthesis in order to convert the light from the sun into usable energy. These organisms, mostly plants, take in carbon dioxide and expel oxygen. Thus, both kinds of organisms are in a mutually-beneficial relationship that helps support all life.

ADP and ATP

ATP (Adenosine triphosphate) is a molecule in the body that cells use for energy transfer. When an organism processes food, it creates ATP in cells. Each molecule of ATP has three branches or phosphate groups that can be broken off. When a cell breaks one of these bonds, ATP turns into ADP (Adensoinediphosphate), which chemical reaction creates energy. Notice that “tri” means three and “di” means two. The energy created then powers cells to continue their processes.

Photosynthesis

Photosynthesis is a process that plants and similar life forms use to create energy. Organisms who use photosynthesis contain a chemical called chlorophyll which lends a green color to these life forms. They are green because they use the energy from the blue and red wavelengths of light, but not green. Red and blue get absorbed, but green stays.

During photosynthesis, sunlight strikes the chlorophyll in plants in cells that all plants have that are known as chloroplasts. In these cells water and carbon dioxide combine using the energy from sunlight to create glucose (sugar) and oxygen. Water is made of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen (H2O) and carbon dioxide is made of one carbon atom and two oxygen atoms. (CO2) Glucose is made of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen (C6H12O6). The glucose is used for energy and the oxygen is let off as a waste product, to be used by animals who need oxygen to create energy instead of carbon dioxide.

DNA

DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) is the molecule that creates the blueprint to make living cells. Almost all living organisms use DNA. It contains instructions based on different combinations of chemicals called bases: adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C) and thymine (T). These bases fit together with each other to create what are called base pairs, which, along with a sugar molecule and phosphate molecule, create the “rungs” on the ladder of DNA. A pairs with T, and C with G. The base pairs form the “rungs” and the sugar and phosphate form the vertical sides of the ladder, which is then twisted around.

A single piece of human DNA contains about 3 billion of these base pairs, and 99 percent of these base pairs are the same on most people, with only the 1 percent making us unique.

DNA is a powerful substance that is able to make copies of itself in order to spread the necessary instructions to other cells so that more copies of cells can be made. When the body “reads” DNA, it receives instructions to make a certain protein, called a gene, and these genes are what determine the properties of a life form, from hair color, to eye color, to skin color, to less obvious things such as what diseases a person might be prone to in life.

There are over 20,000 genes in humans, which together make up what is called the human genome. Scientists have mapped this genome in order to better help people predi...]]>

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**Audio GED Prep Mathematics Lesson 1 **

**Integers and Decimal**

**Definition of an integer/decimal**

An integer is a positive or negative number that does not have a decimal or fraction. These are what are used when counting objects. When a decimal point is present, everything to the left is an integer, and everything to the right is a decimal.

A decimal is a part of an integer. Numbers closer to the decimal point are larger, which is the opposite of how it is for integers.

**Positive and negative numbers**

In math, you might see what is called a number line, in which the middle point is marked 0, and numbers are listed as points on a line going out to the left and right. The number 0 is neither positive nor negative, and everything to the right of 0 is a positive number, and everything to the left of 0 is a negative number. You indicate a negative number by putting a dash/minus sign in front of it.

Negative numbers have their own set of rules. When you add a negative number, it is the same as subtracting that same number. If you subtract a negative number, it is the same as adding that same number. Just remember that these two are reversed. When you multiply two negative numbers as well, you will always get a positive number. (The minus signs cancel each other out.) If, however, you multiply a negative number and a positive number, you will always get a negative number.

**Addition**

Addition is when you take two numbers and combine them to create a new total. Addition is indicated by a plus sign, which looks like a small cross. When you speak an addition equation, you say “five plus six is eleven”, which is the same as 5 + 6 = 11.

**Subtraction**

Subtraction is when you take two numbers and take one away from another to create a new total. Subtraction is indicated by a minus sign, which looks like a small dash. When you speak an addition equation, you say “ten minus nine is one”, which is the same as 10 – 1 = 9.

**Multiplication**

Multiplication is when you take one number and multiply that number by another number. Multiplication is indicated by a small X or sometimes an *. When you speak a multiplication equation, you say “four times three is twelve”, which is the same as 4 x 3 = 12 or 4 * 3 = 12.

**Division**

Division is when you take one number and divide into the number of parts indicated by a second number. Division is indicated by a division sign (÷) or sometimes by a slash (/). When you speak a division equation, you say “ten divided by two equals five”, which is the same as 10 ÷ 2 = 5 or 10/2 = 5.

**Absolute value**

Absolute value refers to how many units a number is worth, no matter whether it is positive or negative. You can mark the absolute value by putting vertical lines around a number, such as |2|.

The absolute value of ten (|10|) is ten, and the absolute value of negative 10 (|-10|) is still 10.

**Comparisons**

Sometimes in math, you need to talk about whether something is greater than or less than, equal to, or not equal to something else.

To show that something is greater than something else, you use the sign >.

Example: 7 > 4

The sign ≥ means “greater than or equal to”.

To show that something is less than something else, you use the sign

Example: 2 < 4

The sign ≤ means “less than or equal to”.

To show that something is equal to something else, you use the sign =

Example: 5-2 = 1+2

To show that something is not equal to something else, you use the sign ≠

Example: 7-3 ≠ 9- 4

Large Addition

It is easy to do simple addition in your head, but larger problems often require either a calculator or for you to figure it out on paper. In order to do this put the larger number on top and the smaller number below it so that all the digits line up, the ones in the ones place, the tens in the tens place and so on. You then draw a line below the two numbers to indicate the equals sign. The answer will go below the line.

You then add the ones place, which is the place directly next to the decimal point to the left. If the sum of these numbers is less than ten, you simply write the total below the line directly underneath the ones place. If the result is larger than 10, you write a one above the next column over to the left and then the second digit of the total below the ones column. That one that you placed over the next column to the left needs to be figured into the total of the next column.

You repeat this process until all of the columns have been added. If one number has more places than the other, there will be some columns that only have one number. In that case, the blank space is treated like a 0. Do not forget to add any ones you had to carry over.

You can do this process with any number of numbers, even with numbers that have decimals. Just make sure that the decimal point gets put in the same place in the answer.

**Large Subtraction**

Large subtraction requires the same set up as addition, but be sure to put the first number on the top and second number below it. In addition, the order does not matter, but in subtraction it does.

If you subtract a column and the top number is greater than the bottom number, simply subtract one from the other and write the result below the line. If, however, the top number is smaller, you will need to “borrow” from the next column over. Subtract one from the number that is one column over to the left in the top row and then put a one in front of the top number in the column you are trying to subtract. Then write the result. You might have to do this multiple times until you have subtracted all columns.

**Large Multiplication**

Large multiplication requires both multiplication and addition to do. First, set up the two numbers like an addition problem. It is usually more convenient to have the smaller number on the bottom, but order does not matter.

Start with the first number to the far right on the bottom number and take turns multiplying it with every number on the top row from right to left, writing the results below the line.

One you are done with this, write a zero in the ones place directly under your first total. Then multiply everything by the second digit on the bottom and place these results next to the zero.

You must repeat this process with every digit in the bottom number, and every time, you need to add another zero before you get started. That is to compensate for each number being in a larger place, first ones, and then tens and then hundreds and so on. If you are multiplying something by 2 in the hundreds place, you are actually multiplying everything by 200, and so you need to add the two zeros at the end.

Once you have completed multiplying using all the digits in the bottom number, simply add all of the results together to a final total.

**Long Division**

Long division is done by placing the number to be divided inside a half box, a short vertical line to its left side and a long horizontal line above it. The number that shows how many parts the other number is to be divided into (also called the dividend) is placed on the other side of the vertical line.

You need to take the dividend and see if you can divide that number into the first digit, even if it is just one time, even if there is a remainder. You want to see how many times you can fit the dividend into that number without going over. For example, if you are dividing by three, and the first digit is 8, you can fit three in there twice (6), without going over. So, you write 2 directly over the number on the horizontal line, and then multiply the dividend by the number you just wrote, in this case 2 x 3 = 6.

You then write 6 under that first digit, which was 8 and subtract. In this case, you would get 8-6 = 2. You then look to see if there is another number next to the first number and if there is, you “bring it down” next to the result of the subtraction result you just got. If the next number next to the eight were 4, you would bring it down next to the 2 so that you now have 24. You then see how many times you can make 3 go into 24 without going over. In this case, it can go into 24 eight times, for an exact total. You multiply 3 x 8 and get 24. You then subtract 24 from 24 and get 0.

You complete this process until you have run out of digits to bring down. If you have run out of digits, you have two options. You can either write was is left over as a remainder, which is shown by a capital letter R (such as 25 R 2, or twenty-five, remainder 2), or you can divide into the decimal realm.

To continue with decimals, you can simply add a zero to whatever remainder you have and continue trying to divide until you have reached enough decimal places or you have reached 0. Be sure to put the decimal point in your answer.

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Audio GED Prep Mathematics Lesson 1

Integers and Decimal

Definition of an integer/decimal

An integer is a positive or negative number that does not have a decimal or fraction. These are what are used when counting objects. When a decimal point is present, everything to the left is an integer, and everything to the right is a decimal.

A decimal is a part of an integer. Numbers closer to the decimal point are larger, which is the opposite of how it is for integers.

Positive and negative numbers

In math, you might see what is called a number line, in which the middle point is marked 0, and numbers are listed as points on a line going out to the left and right. The number 0 is neither positive nor negative, and everything to the right of 0 is a positive number, and everything to the left of 0 is a negative number. You indicate a negative number by putting a dash/minus sign in front of it.

Negative numbers have their own set of rules. When you add a negative number, it is the same as subtracting that same number. If you subtract a negative number, it is the same as adding that same number. Just remember that these two are reversed. When you multiply two negative numbers as well, you will always get a positive number. (The minus signs cancel each other out.) If, however, you multiply a negative number and a positive number, you will always get a negative number.

Addition

Addition is when you take two numbers and combine them to create a new total. Addition is indicated by a plus sign, which looks like a small cross. When you speak an addition equation, you say “five plus six is eleven”, which is the same as 5 + 6 = 11.

Subtraction

Subtraction is when you take two numbers and take one away from another to create a new total. Subtraction is indicated by a minus sign, which looks like a small dash. When you speak an addition equation, you say “ten minus nine is one”, which is the same as 10 – 1 = 9.

Multiplication

Multiplication is when you take one number and multiply that number by another number. Multiplication is indicated by a small X or sometimes an *. When you speak a multiplication equation, you say “four times three is twelve”, which is the same as 4 x 3 = 12 or 4 * 3 = 12.

Division

Division is when you take one number and divide into the number of parts indicated by a second number. Division is indicated by a division sign (÷) or sometimes by a slash (/). When you speak a division equation, you say “ten divided by two equals five”, which is the same as 10 ÷ 2 = 5 or 10/2 = 5.

Absolute value

Absolute value refers to how many units a number is worth, no matter whether it is positive or negative. You can mark the absolute value by putting vertical lines around a number, such as |2|.

The absolute value of ten (|10|) is ten, and the absolute value of negative 10 (|-10|) is still 10.

Comparisons

Sometimes in math, you need to talk about whether something is greater than or less than, equal to, or not equal to something else.

To show that something is greater than something else, you use the sign >.

Example: 7 > 4

The sign ≥ means “greater than or equal to”.

To show that something is less than something else, you use the sign

Example: 2 < 4

The sign ≤ means “less than or equal to”.

To show that something is equal to something else, you use the sign =

Example: 5-2 = 1+2

To show that something is not equal to something else,]]>

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**Audio GED Prep Mathematics Lesson 2**

**Fractions**

**Definition of a fraction/parts of a fraction**

A fraction shows a part of a whole. They are usually shown by a top number, called the numerator, and a bottom number, called the denominator. Between the numerator and the denominator, there is a slash, either a straight line(—) or a slash (/).

The denominator shows how many parts are in a whole, (1) and the numerator shows how many parts you have. There are several ways that you will see fractions used. The reciprocal of a fraction is when you switch the numerator and the denominator. For example, 3/4 and 4/3 are reciprocals.

**Types of fractions**

First, there are simple fractions. In simple fractions, the numerator is smaller than, or equal to the denominator, meaning that you have a part of a whole, or exactly one whole thing.

Then, there are complex fractions, in which the numerator is larger than the denominator. You can write these out like a normal fraction, or write them as a mixed number, which consists of an integer and a fraction side by side. If you have a complex fraction, you have at least one whole thing or more, and part of another whole.

Simplifying fractions/equivalent fractions

Sometimes, a fraction can be simplified. This means that it could be written as a fraction that has a smaller numerator and denominator without changing its value. If both numbers of a fraction can be divided by the same number, then the fraction can be simplified.

This means that there are many fractions that are equal to the same part of a whole. For example, if you divide a whole into four parts, and you have two parts out of the whole (2/4), that is the same as diving a whole into two parts and having one of the two parts. (1/2). Both 2/4 are ½ are exactly half of the whole or 50%. You can divide both 2 and 4 by 2 to get 1 and 2 respectively. If you cannot divide the numbers of a fraction by the same number, then the fraction is as simple as possible. For example, the fraction 7/8 cannot be divided by the same number, and so is completely simplified.

**Converting fraction to mixed number/vice versa**

Sometimes, it will be useful to convert a fraction to a mixed number or from a mixed number back into a fraction.

For sake of ease, first simplify the fraction if possible. To convert a fraction to a mixed number, you must first see if the numerator is greater than the denominator.If it is not, then you cannot create a mixed number because you do not have more than one whole.

If the numerator is greater, then subtract the denominator from the numerator. For example, if the fraction 9/8 then you subtract 9 – 8 = 1. The result is you new numerator. You then put a large number one next to the fraction to show one whole unit. So, 9/8 becomes 1 1/8.

Then, you need to check if the numerator is still greater than the denominator. In this case, it is not, and so you are done. If, however, you have the fraction 17/8, you would get 1 9/8. Because the numerator is still larger, repeat the process and add another whole unit. In this case, you would get 2 1/8. Now that the numerator is larger than the denominator, you are done.

You can also think about it as dividing the numerator by the denominator, and leaving the remainder as the denominator. This works best when you have very large numerators.

When you want to reverse this process, you have to follow another process. Simply multiply the integer, or large number by the denominator and then add this number to the numerator. For the example 2 1/8, this would be 2 x 8 = 16, and then 1 + 16 = 17. You then have the complex fraction 17/8.

**Adding and Subtracting Fractions**

In order to add or subtract fractions, you have to make sure they have the same denominator. If they do not have the same denominator, you need to find a common denominator. It is best to try to find the lowest common denominator to make things easier. In order to find this, you multiply the top and the bottom number by the same things. An easy way to find this is to multiply both number in one fraction by the denominator of the other fraction, and vice versa.

1/2 + 1/3 = x

3/6 + 2/6 = x

5/6 = x

3/4 – 1/5 = x

15/20 – 4/20 = x

11/20 = x

**Multiplying and Dividing Fractions**

To multiply fractions, all you have to do is multiply the numerators to create a new numerator and then you multiply the denominators to get a new denominator. Then you should simply the fraction.

3/4 x 4/5

3 x 4 = 12

4 x 5 = 20

12/20

3/5

To divide fractions, the easiest way to make this happen is the multiply by the reciprocal of the second fraction. A reciprocal is when your switch the numerator and the denominator.

(7/10)/(4/5) = x

(7/10) x (5/4) = x

35/40 = x

7/8 = x

Sources:

http://www.mathsisfun.com/fractions_division.html

http://www.mathsisfun.com/fractions_multiplication.html

An allegory is a story in which the characters, settings, or events have a deeper symbolic meaning such as George Orwell’s “Animal Farm”.

Sources: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eastern_Europe

http://russiapedia.rt.com/basic-facts-about-russia/

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asia

http://www.audiogedprep.com

©2015 Franz Amussen, All Rights Reserved

at http://www.medsailor.com

]]>

http://www.audiogedprep.com

Full Course is available at:

https://gumroad.com/l/wHvQ

For $59.99

Lesson Summary:

Audio GED Prep Mathematics Lesson 2

Fractions

Definition of a fraction/parts of a fraction

A fraction shows a part of a whole. They are usually shown by a top number, called the numerator, and a bottom number, called the denominator. Between the numerator and the denominator, there is a slash, either a straight line(—) or a slash (/).

The denominator shows how many parts are in a whole, (1) and the numerator shows how many parts you have. There are several ways that you will see fractions used. The reciprocal of a fraction is when you switch the numerator and the denominator. For example, 3/4 and 4/3 are reciprocals.

Types of fractions

First, there are simple fractions. In simple fractions, the numerator is smaller than, or equal to the denominator, meaning that you have a part of a whole, or exactly one whole thing.

Then, there are complex fractions, in which the numerator is larger than the denominator. You can write these out like a normal fraction, or write them as a mixed number, which consists of an integer and a fraction side by side. If you have a complex fraction, you have at least one whole thing or more, and part of another whole.

Simplifying fractions/equivalent fractions

Sometimes, a fraction can be simplified. This means that it could be written as a fraction that has a smaller numerator and denominator without changing its value. If both numbers of a fraction can be divided by the same number, then the fraction can be simplified.

This means that there are many fractions that are equal to the same part of a whole. For example, if you divide a whole into four parts, and you have two parts out of the whole (2/4), that is the same as diving a whole into two parts and having one of the two parts. (1/2). Both 2/4 are ½ are exactly half of the whole or 50%. You can divide both 2 and 4 by 2 to get 1 and 2 respectively. If you cannot divide the numbers of a fraction by the same number, then the fraction is as simple as possible. For example, the fraction 7/8 cannot be divided by the same number, and so is completely simplified.

Converting fraction to mixed number/vice versa

Sometimes, it will be useful to convert a fraction to a mixed number or from a mixed number back into a fraction.

For sake of ease, first simplify the fraction if possible. To convert a fraction to a mixed number, you must first see if the numerator is greater than the denominator.If it is not, then you cannot create a mixed number because you do not have more than one whole.

If the numerator is greater, then subtract the denominator from the numerator. For example, if the fraction 9/8 then you subtract 9 – 8 = 1. The result is you new numerator. You then put a large number one next to the fraction to show one whole unit. So, 9/8 becomes 1 1/8.

Then, you need to check if the numerator is still greater than the denominator. In this case, it is not, and so you are done. If, however, you have the fraction 17/8, you would get 1 9/8. Because the numerator is still larger, repeat the process and add another whole unit. In this case, you would get 2 1/8. Now that the numerator is larger than the denominator, you are done.

You can also think about it as dividing the numerator by the denominator, and leaving the remainder as the denominator. This works best when you have very large numerators.

When you want to reverse this process, you have to follow another process. Simply multiply the integer, or large number by the denominator and then add...]]>

If you are one of those who are planning to take the General Educational Development (GED) exam, there are a number of things that you have to consider. But the key here is preparation.

Passing the GED test is one way to prove you have obtained a high school-level education. There are five subject areas which are covered and these include the Mathematics, Language arts (reading), Language arts (writing), Social studies, and Science.

In most states in the US, those adults who have not earned a high school diploma are qualified to take the GED test. As what the American Council on Education (ACE) have officially stated, by successful completing the exam, you’ll be able to obtain a credential which is equivalent to a high school diploma and recognized by over 95% of employers and post secondary schools.

**Studying for the GED Test**

For those test takers who are a few years removed from school, studying for the GED exam is crucial. Familiarizing themselves with the subject matters will be a lot of help. They can do that by completing official sample test questions which is available on the ACE website. You can also gauge which subject areas deserve the most attention. In order to prepare for GED test, you may consider the following options:

**Online**

With the internet, you can make use of GED practice tests and resources which are available online. Try to visit the ACE website for useful resources. Also, the Kentucky Educational Television (KET) network provides an approved GED test preparation materials online which is available on the PBS Literacy Link. Another website worth visiting is the GED Online at www.series7podcast.com which may involve some fees but it provides interactive study sessions, online grading of practice tests and e-mail support.

**At home**

In addition to those online resources, there are several at-home study options like the GED practice books. ‘The Keys to GED Success’ is highly recommended. You can also have the ‘GED Connection’, which is a series of video programs that are broadcast by PBS through local public television stations.

In class

Another preparation option is to attend a GED preparation course, which are available at adult education resource centers across the country. Such centers can be found at public and community colleges as well. Mostly, it lasts on a single term with a comprehensive review of all subject areas. The state’s department of education website also lists these participating education centers.

Full Course is available at:

For $59.99

Lesson Summary:

**Audio GED Prep Language Arts Lesson 1**

**Literary Devices**

Literary devices are like the tools at an author’s disposal.

A simile is a comparison using the words “like” or “as”.

A metaphor is also a comparison, stronger than a simile that does not use “like” or “as”, but usually uses a form of the verb “to be”.

Descriptive language is when an author uses adjectives and adverbs to paint a vivid picture with specific details. An author needs to find a balance between using too much and too little description.

Alliteration is a device often used in poetry in which words have the same initial sound.

Allusion is when an author makes a reference to another work in order to create a desired effect.

Hyperbole is using exaggeration to make a point, such as saying that “I was so hungry I could eat a horse.”

Personification is when an author gives human attributes to an inanimate object, such as describing a fire as “running”.

An allegory is a story in which the characters, settings, or events have a deeper symbolic meaning such as George Orwell’s “Animal Farm”.

Sources: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eastern_Europe

http://russiapedia.rt.com/basic-facts-about-russia/

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asia

http://www.audiogedprep.com

©2015 Franz Amussen, All Rights Reserved

at http://www.medsailor.com

]]>

http://www.audiogedprep.com

Full Course is available at:

https://gumroad.com/l/wHvQ

For $59.99

Lesson Summary:

Audio GED Prep Language Arts Lesson 1

Literary Devices

Literary devices are like the tools at an author’s disposal.

A simile is a comparison using the words “like” or “as”.

A metaphor is also a comparison, stronger than a simile that does not use “like” or “as”, but usually uses a form of the verb “to be”.

Descriptive language is when an author uses adjectives and adverbs to paint a vivid picture with specific details. An author needs to find a balance between using too much and too little description.

Alliteration is a device often used in poetry in which words have the same initial sound.

Allusion is when an author makes a reference to another work in order to create a desired effect.

Hyperbole is using exaggeration to make a point, such as saying that “I was so hungry I could eat a horse.”

Personification is when an author gives human attributes to an inanimate object, such as describing a fire as “running”.

An allegory is a story in which the characters, settings, or events have a deeper symbolic meaning such as George Orwell’s “Animal Farm”.

Sources: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eastern_Europe

http://russiapedia.rt.com/basic-facts-about-russia/

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asia

//

http://www.audiogedprep.com

©2015 Franz Amussen, All Rights Reserved

If you are interested in learning to sail listen to the podcast “Sailing in the Mediterranean”

at http://www.medsailor.com

http://www.medsailor.com/

http://www.audiogedprep.com

]]>

1. Employers favor the applicant who passed the GED test rather than the one who hasn’t. Passing the GED test makes the employer realize that the applicant has a mental fortitude to pass such a difficult exam. The GED certificate also equivalents to having a high school diploma which increases your chance of getting hired in your dream company!

2. Having a GED certificate allows you to earn more money than an average person. Research and data shows that people who have passed a GED test makes $385,000 more in their lifetime!

3. Passing the GED test shows that you have exemplary writing, reading, math and analytical skills. Any employer would be impressed when an applicant has passed a GED test because passing one isn’t an easy task.

4. Not only does having a GED certificate acts as a proof of highly developed skills, it also gives you the opportunity to undergo advanced training, taking college courses and going to vocational school.

5. Only 60% percent of high school graduates have passed the GED test, which gives you more leverage in applying for jobs if you have passed it. Let that data act as a motivator for you do well and great upon preparing and taking a GED test!

**How Can I Get My GED Certificate?**

The secret to passing a GED test is preparation. Prepare yourself with GED test guides – they can be found online, in libraries, or bookstores. There are is myriad of resources you can utilize that will greatly help you with your preparation for the test. Be smart about studying and have confidence in taking the exam – knowing that you prepared well for this. Getting a GED certificate isn’t that hard to attain, especially if you look at the benefits of having one!

]]>The General Educational Development or GED examination is an alternative way to earn a secondary-school credential. It s composed of four parts namely the science, social studies, mathematical reasoning, and reasoning through language arts. If you are one of those who are planning to take the exam, here are some important tips to help you prepare for this exam:

**Familiarize yourself with the test**

The GED test includes subject such as mathematics, science, social studies, reading and writing. In your preparation, make sure that it addresses these subjects.

**Take a preparation class**

An in-person GED preparation classes is also an effective way to pass this exam. With this, you’ll have a one-on-one assistance especially in those areas that you need to work on. It also teaches you how to set up a regular study schedule properly. These classes are generally available at adult learning centers or community colleges.

**Avail for an online study course**

Aside from in-person classes, many states also offer online study course for GED preparation. Such courses may have separate registration. Your state website may recommend other online study aides. Also check the GED Testing Service for online, mobile, and print test preparation programs and other aids.

**Make use of GED prep books**

Some people may prefer to study using books or other resources. Your state may provide some GED workbooks. You can purchase them online, or you can avail them at your local library or adult education center.

**Take a practice test**

With practice tests, you’ll know what types of questions that may come out on the GED exam. It will also help you identify those areas that you need more study. Visit the GED Testing Service website for practice tests and guides.

**Find out the tools that you need for the test**

While the test center will provide you with an embedded calculator to be used use on one part of the mathematics exam, you can also bring your own TI-30XS Multiview Scientific Calculator.

A successful study is about learning. With this, the learning process is important for any student. The key here is to understand first on how to activate your learning process. Once you do it, you’ll know more about your learning process. As a result, it is much easier to learn. Learning is all about retaining knowledge instead of just memorization. This is what the GED test really wants to measure. Here are some tips to help you activate your learning process:

**Learning is an active process**

Take note that learning is an active process. The students have to be involved with the information as it doesn’t just occur by reading or reviewing. Once your learning became an active process, you learning will also be activated. In this process, you may have a way to be involved and engaged with mathematical information that will enable you to retain the information and knowledge needed.

**Learning requires relevant information**

Another principle is that real learning requires relevant information. You may know some people who claim to be poor in math and yet, they are doing great on their personal finances. This just means that when the information is relevant, it is meaningful. Thus, a good plan for an online GED test class or GED test study requires relevant information. With this, the students can make it meaningful by thinking of ways that the information might apply to their own life.

**Learning has a style**

What you may not be aware of is that learning has a style. Such style is different for everyone. Your learning process will be activated easily when the information is presented in a way that fit with your learning style.

For some, they learn best by hearing while some are best with visual presentation. For some people, they might have combined styles. Thus, it is important for students to find out their own learning style and once they understand their learning style, they can use it to their advantage.

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